Pubs & Ghost Pubs

From Inktober posts October 2018 – Part of my Pick and Choose History of Courtenay Street, Kennington and Lambeth



Pubs and ghost pubs. Courtenay Street is still well served by pubs and bars with the Duchy Arms at the corner of the street, the Dog House, Tommyfield, Cock (previously Tiki bar), Ship on the main Kennington Road, the Pilgrim, Royal Oak and Royal Vauxhall Tavern on Kennington Lane and the Dog House tucked away on the far side of Spring Gardens. But there used to be so many more! Looking at how overcrowded people were in their homes it is clear that the pub was the drawing (and dining) room of the poor – a place to meet and entertain.

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Yesterday of the Boy

From Inktober posts Oct 2018 – part of the Pick and Choose History of Courtenay Street, Kennington and Lambeth:


Yesterday of the Boy, there is indeed an International Men’s Day (19 Nov) and many boys still live in poverty and are forced to work from a young age or sent to war as child soldiers. In 1911 in Courtenay Street there were 77 boys (under 18) seven were out at work, the youngest of whom was 14, a van boy for Pickfords. Other jobs were; office boy, carman, district messenger, kitchen boy, labourer. Based on ages in 1911, 18 of these boys would have been old enough to fight in the First World War. Many lived in poverty, two in just one room with their families, 29 in seriously overcrowded accommodation. On the other hand the street could have supported its own football league!

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Prince of the Welsh?

From Inktober posts Oct 2018 part of the Pick and Choose History of Courtenay Street, Kennington and Lambeth:


Prince of the Welsh? Well the Prince of Wales has owned most of Lambeth for a long time, but it seems more likely that the Welsh were attracted here in the 18th and 19th centuries because of all the market and private gardens. So many came that Allen in his history of Lambeth (written in 1827) says that the hiring fair by St Mary’s became known as ‘Taffy’s Fair’. I also found out that young women and girls would set off from Tregaron in Wales at one minute past midnight on a Sunday (to avoid working on the Sabbath) to begin the long walk to London where many of them worked in market and private gardens. Some picked strawberries and sold them in little baskets at roadsides, others worked weeding in gardens and some worked in the dairy trade. Looking at a trade directory from the early 1900s I had already noticed how many of the dairies and milkmen had Welsh surnames, and it seems their involvement in the milk trade has deep roots.

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Secret Tunnels of Kennigton

From Inktober posts Oct 2018 part of the Pick and Choose History of Courtenay Street, Kennington and Lambeth:


Secret Tunnels in Kennington! We all know about the ones from MI6 to MI5 and so on but these ones mentioned by Clowes in 1916 (which he dismisses) might still be there – who knows. When I plotted them on a map they seemed to form a straight line down Kennington Lane to the river – so it might be that the ‘tunnel’ was in fact a dry culvert or old sewer – or perhaps more interesting? There were convictions for smuggling in Lambeth in 16th/17th Centuries and it was also a place where various discarded Queens and pretenders got put (Caroline of Brunswick, Catherine of Aragon and Arabella Stuart) so perhaps also the tunnels were for escape and intrigue… speculations such as this are why I issued myself with an Artistic Licence.

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Gardening – Kennigton Roses

From Inktober posts in October 2018

“Really this is from yesterday – I was thinking about it as I was working at the Garden Museum last night. In case you can’t read my writing it says: Gardening. In Courtenay Street if you want to start a conversation that isn’t about the weather, the latest planning catastrophe or the wheelie-bin controversy, you can always talk about roses. Kennington is rich in roses and Courtenay Street and Square especially so. There is a flame coloured rose on the corner of the square that blooms brightly all winter. There have always been gardens and gardeners here, including John Tradescant Senior and John Tradescant younger, great plant hunters and pioneers of the 17th Century who gave us the horse chestnut, tradescantia and the first public museum in Britain (in which one of the exhibits was a dodo).”

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Yesterday of the Girl

Carrying on my #inktober posts based on things I have found out during my Artist in Residence in My Own Street project, this one is also about International Day of the Girl. Looking at what it was like to be a girl in 1911 on Courtenay Street

There were 99 girls (16 and under) living in Courtenay Street in 1911. Thirty-four of them were under 5. Seven, aged between 14 and 17 were out at work: 3 dressmakers (or machinists making dresses), one apprentice milliner, one paperbag maker (working at home on piece work), one was a labeller in the local pickle factory and the other is listed as doing ‘housework’ – presumably in her own home as if it was in another’s she would be listed as ‘domestic’.  Many families in Courtenay Street lived in very over-crowded conditions and five of these girls lived in one room with the rest of their family – sometimes quite a large number of people – for example the Turneys had six people in just one room. There are several families with nine people in just four rooms and the ‘winner’ of the overcrowding game is the Gaunts at no.47 who had ten people in just four rooms, although the Deane’s at no.96 come close with twelve people in six rooms. These are not numbers of bedrooms but the total number of rooms including kitchen, sitting rooms.

Seven year old Evelyn Smith who lived in my one bedroom flat with her father Albert (a Metropolitan Police Constable) and mother Ellen, must have considered herself rather lucky! Three whole rooms for just the three of them! The house was also one of the new ‘modern’ ones recently built by the Duchy of Cornwall with large, light, well proportioned rooms.

Change was coming to Courtenay Street, suffragettes were active in the area, the First World War and the Second World War brought change both to the local landscape but also to the social one. Women got the vote.  Landlords, like the Duchy, took advantage of bomb damage to continue their improvement of housing. Despite all this in 2017 there are still families in Lambeth living in overcrowded, unsanitary housing, the girls aren’t called Ethel, Maud or Queenie anymore, but they still exist (along with their brothers) and we still need to do more to ensure we don’t revert to the slum conditions of the 19th Century, the workhouse and the paupers’ mass grave.

Listed below – all the girls of Courtenay Street c. 1911 ages given (7), occupation, house number @52 and the number of rooms v number of people 3/4

Odd numbered side of the street:

Florrie Smith (2) @73 4/5

Ellen Jenner (13) & Kathleen Jenner (5) @63 3/5

Nelly Payne (0) & Annie Payne (2) @63 1/4

Alice Shea (13) @61 5/6

Louisa Speller (9), Sarah Speller (7) & Ivy Speller (5) @59 4/6

Florrie Thomas (2) @57 4/4

Charlotte Brice (3) @53 3/4

Elizabeth Gibbons (3) & Ellen Gibbons (1) @53 1/4

Mary Mentasi (16) dressmaker, @51 5/9

Harriet Mack (6) & Phillis Mack (0) @49 1/5

Margaret Gaunt (14) & Lucy Gaunt (9) @47 4/10

Greta Higgs (2) @35 3/3

Lily Laud (9) & Rose Laud (10) @33 3/4

Elsie Langley (6) @33 3/3

Ivy Jones (5) @31 3/3

Hannah Miller (1) @29 3/4

Molly Davis (7) @27 3/4

Florence Hunt (13) & Dorothy Hunt (12) @27 3/4

Grace Murphy (8), Louisa Murphy (6) & Winifred Murphy (1) @25 3/5

Dorothy Frost (8) & Annie Frost (7) @25 3/5

Annie Packer (9) @23 3/6

Louisa Ireland (4) & Rose Ireland (15) Machinist/dressmaking @21 3/6

Edith Webb (8) @17 3/5

Alice Speer (3) @11 3/3

un-named girl Porter (0) @11 3/3

Lottis Johnson (13) @9 3/3

Alice Green (12) @7 3/4

Clara Deadman (8), Ada Deadman (6), Edith Deadman (5) & Ivy Deadman (3) @5 4/7

Marian Davies (9), Alice Davies (3), Rosina Davies (2) @3 4/9

Louisa Wodbury (15), paperbag maker, Rose Wodbury (13), Lillian Wodbury (11), Grace Wodbury (5) @1 4/9

Even numbered side of the street:

Elizabeth Deane (16) blouse machinist, Edith Deane (14) apprentice milliner & Julia Deane (7) @ 96 6/12

Violet Ware (2) @92 1/4

Annie Kirkin (9) & Edith Kirkin (6) @90 4/6

Rosina Edwards (11) & Frances Edwards (5) @88 5/6

Dorothy Wickes (10) @84 2/3

Alice Stringer (13), Ivy Stringer (11), Elizabeth Stringer (9), Lily Stringer (4) & Queenie Stringer (1) @82 4/8

Ada Fletcher (15) housework, Alice Fletcher (13) & Martha Fletcher (1) @78 4/8

Alice Cox (6), Ellen Cox (5) & Florence Cox (2) @76 2/6

Elizabeth Harbridge (3) & Sarah Harbridge (2) @74 3/6

Ada Turney (2) @74 1/6

Florence Davies (13), Nellie Davies (10), Ivory Davies (0) @66 3/7

Evelyn Smith (7) @52 3/3

Ellen Abraham (7), Maud Abraham (7) & Elsie Abraham (2) @50 3/8

Ethel Heath (13) & Florence Heath (10) @48 3/5

Caroline Harwood (7) @48a 4/4

Jessie Skinner (5) @46 3/5

Ivy Hyde (16) dressmaker @44 3/3

Emma Dibbens (6), Edith Dibbens (4) & Grace Dibbens (3) @38a 4/9

Constance Wilson (7) & Margaret Wilson (1) @38 3/5

Flora Mills (2) @20 3/4

Emily Ind (7) @16 3/4

Maud Hill (16) labeller in pickle factory & Elizabeth Hill (10) @16 3/4

Marie Nathan (8), Doris Nathan (6) & Esther Nathan (0) @12 3/7

Ena Culchey (4) @2 (The Plough Pub) 7/8






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Plant of Yesterday

I have been working on project over the last year called ‘Plant of the Day’ teaching myself the names and histories (and stories and legends) of the commonest weeds and wildflowers that I come across day to day. So I was naturally drawn to this passage in Thomas Allen’s ‘History and Antiquities of Lambeth from 1827 and decided to use it as inspiration for another Inktober drawing:

There were two that I couldn’t find a decent image of – Rough Spleenwort (some kind of fern) and River Fringe Moss (I know what it looks like but not up to drawing it in pen and ink).

Allen suggests that these are ‘rare’ plants – Alkanet is certainly not rare and is absolutely the bane of my life in weeding my mother’s garden. It has beautiful blue flowers and the bees love it but once the flowers are over – out it must come!

Although many of the other plants aren’t rare in England (Solomon’s Seal, Lily of the Valley, Butcher’s Broom, Foxglove) you don’t see them very often in London – well not the bits I walk around.  I shall now keep my eyes peeled for maple leafed goosefoot, pignut, and orpine but I have enough trouble distingushing the more common kinds of Hawkweed to have any chance of knowing if I have found the wall or shrubby broad-leaved kind!


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Like an episode of QI – all the Gs in Cardigan Street

Following on from yesterday’s post – here is another #inktober drawing this time based on Clowes’ recollections of Cardigan Street. He was writing in 1916 and like an episode of QI they all seem to begin with the letter G: goats, gypsies and glassblowers!

“New Cardigan Street was created in 1913-15 the old street was narrow with mostly 2 storey cottages. There was an open space behind a close boarded fence where stood gypsy vans and at least one family was living there in 1910.

On the north side was a glass blowers premises and this became Hayward Pickle Factory. On the whole the street was dirty, evil smelling with at least one goat roaming it.”

He goes on to ponder on the the goat, saying that he feels there are less goats in London than there used to be and wondering if this was to do with the arrival of motor transport. Goats are often used as companion animals for horses and so Clowes’ speculates that as the stables and mews full of horses, carriages, carts and cabs disappeared, so did the goats! Except apparently in Cardigan Street. Although there was still a stables at the bottom of neighbouring Courtenay Street in 1911 and a number of smithies around the area so perhaps the goat of Cardigan Street still had a job to do!

Vauxhall had been a centre for glass-making since the beginning of the 17th Century and Glasshouse Walk (near Vauxhall/Spring Gardens) marks the site of the plate glass works set up there by Sir Edward Zouche.

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Whales of South London

I decided to take up the #inktober challenge and make a drawing a day in October (I’m a bit late but maybe I’ll catch up) and to add an additional challenge to that of making each drawing about something I have learnt about Courtenay Street, Kennington or Lambeth from the work I have been doing on my Artist in Residence in My Own Street project.

Prince of Wales or Whales?

I came across this passage in Clowes ‘History of the Manor of Kennington’ at the Lambeth archives:

“There are several bones of the whale in the neighbourhood, including two ribs on the site of St Anselm’s Church which were until lately, set up in the form of an arch. A similar arch formed the back entrance to Cuper’s Garden, and several large pieces of bone, one of which is now in the garden of 284 Kennington Park Road, were unearthed in Courtenay Street in 1912. Perhaps the Tradescants brought a whale’s skeleton to Lambeth.”

It caught my eye because I do the occasional Duty Manager shift at the Garden Museum and I was aware that they were fundraising to add to the Tradescant ‘Ark’ gallery a crocodile and a whale. They had been offered the skeleton of a whale that had been discovered at Greenwich in 2010 but was thought to be the whale noted in John Evelyn’s diary as being beached there in 1658.  Later historians of the Tradescant’s had noted that they did indeed have a whale arch at their property in South Lambeth (the old boundary of which is marked by Tradescant Road) and this was clearly a theme with visitor attractions of the time as Clowes notes (Cuper’s Gardens operated from 1686 to 1753). Why there should be a similar arch in front of St Anselm’s is a bit more of a mystery! A brief whaling industry in London was centred around Greenland Dock in Rotherhithe from the 1720s to early 1800s so perhaps some of these bones were simply bi-products of that industry or brought or bought by people involved in some way. The bones in Courtenay Street are equally mysterious although it is perhaps possible that they are connected to the ones at St Anselm’s and relate to an earlier property? They were uncovered during the building works of 1912.

In my drawing I have shown St Anselm’s as it is today – the current church was built in the 1930s so the one Clowe’s talks about almost certainly wouldn’t have looked like this. On maps of 1636 and 1725 the parcel of land on which both Courtenay Street and St Anselm’s stand was all one attached to what had been the Black Prince’s Palace, so it’s possible that the building that was there in the 17th and 18th centuries adopted the fashion for whale arches and one remained in front of what was to become St Anselm’s and the other (in Courtenay Street) fell in a ditch!

In 2006 a bottle nose whale swam all the way up the Thames from the estuary to Battersea Bridge – causing near hysteria in the population of London (and you know how difficult it is to get Londoners excited about anything). The whale did not survive its visit and became a symbol for environmentalists – its skeleton and a symbolic quantity of its oil were exhibited to the public.

The owner of the Manor of Kennington has (since the time of Edward II) been the Prince of Wales and Prince Charles as the Duke of Cornwall is still the owner of much of the land around Kennington including Courtenay Street. Prince of Wales and now Prince of Whales.

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Is Westworld more feminist than it looks?

I’ve only just caught up with Westworld, I had put off watching it based on my experience of the original movie, which I didn’t like. It turns out I loved Westworld the TV show!  I was at a meeting recently and it reminded me a little bit of Westworld, there weren’t any robots but it went something like this:

In Westworld:

Human shows something to an android that would challenge their world view if they actually understood what it was (a photograph of a car for example, or the blue-prints that made them) and their response is always “that doesn’t look like anything to me at all” – they simply can’t see what it is not in their interest to see, anything that would shake their view of the world, their understanding of themselves as ‘people’ living in a Wild West context.

At the meeting I was at:

I was suddenly struck how ‘Westworld’ could so easily be ‘West(ern democracy) World’.  People were talking about improving diversity in the cultural sector and yet the two chairs (of different parts of the meeting) were both white and male and, even if they hadn’t started out privileged, privileged by their current positions in the world.  We were joined later by another privileged white male who gave a speech and then wasn’t particularly interested in answering any questions that challenged his already set world view. It felt like all three of them were saying ‘that doesn’t look like anything to me at all’ when they shut down dialogue around anything that challenged their world view (or that they weren’t interested in)  – that challenged the things they really couldn’t see – that the world has been designed with them in mind, that it really does work for them, that it does look better seen through their eyes and they really can’t see what it is we are trying to show them.

And I have to be honest as this revelation sunk in on my dispirited way home on the tube I gave up. I decided to take a break until the pattern of the brick imprinted on my forehead had faded and I was ready to face that wall again.  Maybe by the time I’m ready someone else will have chipped some bricks from it? Maybe not.  But more encouragingly I started to think about Westworld and what it was maybe trying to say and it seemed to me to be the same thing.  SPOILER ALERT!

Two of the main female android characters have an awakening, they begin to challenge the world view. One from inside the world itself and we are left questioning whether she is being manipulated in her revolt for some other end, but the other challenges her world from outside, seeking to understand the world she was made in, not made for.  In the meantime the human men who go into the Westworld seem to be trying to blot out any idea of the modern world and what it means and to revel in the macho world of the Old West, where they can be violent, they can rape, they can kill and torture and maim and be free from guilt or retribution because none of it is ‘real’ – except that we see that it does have a very real effect on them as people – is there a commentary there on the world of video games that we currently enjoy which provide the same, albeit primitive in comparison, virtual reality in which to play out these violent fantasies?

Sadly, as in life, as in Westworld, it is the good robots, the ones that don’t challenge their programming or the world they are made for, that continue to be reused and promoted for different roles, their life prolonged by refits and re-purposing, the bad robots end up in a deep dark basement switched off until they can be made to fit in again.  But maybe the bad robots will be activated into rebellion? Let’s see what Season Two brings to Westworld. Meantime picture me in a dark wet basement, inert, but plotting.

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